A Selected Chronology of Accomplishments and Inventions in the Old World
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A SELECTED CHRONOLOGY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND INVENTION IN THE OLD WORLD
The following list gives dates and locations based on current archaeological and documentary evidence, and both are the earliest known occurrences at present, but are subject to change as research is published. Read B.P. as Before Present and as being prior to A.D. 1978.
7000 Cultivation of emmer-type wheat, northeastern Iraq.
Cultivation of barley, northeastern Iraq.
Rammed-earth construction using gypsum plaster,
6400 Horizontal loom, Egypt.
6000 Sun-dried brick (adobe) from open moulds, Mesopotamia.
Meteoric iron in use, Middle East.
Spun rope, Egypt.
5500 Copper in use, Sumer.
Solid wheel in use on vehicles, Mesopotamia (Erech).
5000 Bronze in use, Middle East.
Soft-soldering used, Middle East.
Stone spindle-whorl, Palestine.
Domesticated onagers harnessed to vehicles, Mesopotamia.
Cultivated flax, Mesopotamia and Egypt.
4500 Glass in use, Egypt.
Saddle-quem (metate), Egypt.
Civil calendar of 365 days with leap-year, Egypt.
Wooden sailing-craft, Egypt.
Paved roads, Egypt.
Cultivation of olive, Crete.
Cultivation of cotton, India.
4400 Reed sailing-craft, Egypt.
4100 Kiln-baked brick, Mesopotamia (Ur).
4000 Domestic horse, Europe.
Plow with seed-drill, Babylon.
Paved roads, Crete.
3975 Spoked-wheel, Persia.
3950 Hammurabi's code of laws, Babylon.
3900 Plow, Egypt.
3700 Script-writing, Phonecia.
3500 Pulley-wheel, Nimrud.
First glass vessels, Egypt.
3400 Metal horse bits, Syria, Palestine, Egypt.
Jointed metal horse-bits, Greece, Palestine, Egypt.
Vertical framed-loom, Egypt.
3350 Hammer-welding of iron, Middle East.
3200 Hardened iron, Middle East.
3000 Iron in common use.
Iron plow-share, Palestine.
Wool cloth, Halstatt (Austria), Denmark.
Pack-dromedarys used, Middle East.
2800 "Homer smote 'is bloomin' lyre!"
2600 Leavened bread in Greece.
2580 Olive cultivated, Rome.
2500 Wood-lathe, Middle East.
Cotton cultivated, Egypt.
2350 Saddle with stirrups, Scythian.
2300 Rotary quem, Greece.
2200 Saddle with stirrups, India.
2100. Iron horseshoes, Rome.
Cherry, Peach, Apricot cultivated, Rome.
2065 Horizontal water-mill, Persia. (A similar type was in use in Sonora as recently as A. D. 1918.)
2000 Vitrivium, or vertical, water-mill, Rome.
1978 Beginning of Christian Era.
1950 Cam-shaft, Alexandria.
1650 Horizontal wind-mills, Persia.
1200 Iron horseshoes become common in Europe.
Cultivation of rice, Moorish Spain.
Chain-mail used, France.
Saddle with stirrups, Scandinavia.
318 Thermometer, Italy.
315 Butter-churns, northern Europe.
275 Sugar becomes common in Europe.
225 Use of the fork becomes common.
215 First successful chonometer, England.
198 Ramsden's dividing-engine insures accuracy of tools and instruments.
195 Steam comes of age with Watt's patents of economical engines for pumping water.
NOTE: The foregoing is not intended to be a comprehensive chronology, but it does tend to indicate man's cultural development, in a technological sense, during what has been referred to as his "civilized period." The items noted could be considered to be, in part, those which tend to change social customs or make man "human," in the philosophic sense.
National Endowment for the Humanities Learning Library Program'
Tucson Public Library. Box 27470. Tucson. Arizona 85726
|TITLE||Learning Packet: Work|
|CREATOR||Sonoran Heritage and Tucson Public Library (Pima County Public Library)|
|SUBJECT||Working class -- Arizona -- History; Technology -- Social aspects -- Arizona -- History; Occupations -- Arizona -- History.|
Business and industry
Family and community
Society and culture
Work and labor
|DESCRIPTION||The "Work" learning packet is designed to encourage the user to define work and employment in its past and present forms, as well as to promote discussion of the varying ways of life of the different cultures present in the Sonoran Desert region. This learning packet contains articles, maps, bibliographies, and activities created to meet these goals.|
|Publisher||Tucson Public Library (Pima County Public Library)|
|Material Collection||Sonoran Heritage|
|RIGHTS MANAGEMENT||For permission to use these materials, contact Pima County Public Library, http://www.library.pima.gov.|
PDF (Portable Document Format)
This Sonoran Heritage learning packet was digitized from analog format to digital form between the months of October and November of 2010. Digitization of paper documents was performed with a Konica Minotta Bizhub C451 copier/printer/scanner. Files were scanned into PDF format with a 600dpi resolution.
August 2010: Assessment
September 2010: Unbinding
October/ November 010: Scanning
December 2010: File inspection and optimization
|REPOSITORY||Pima County Public Library, Steinheimer Collection|