Forward by Eric Halvorson
Introduction and Compilation by Jean Reynolds
Published by Latino Perspectives Media
and the Phoenix College Raul H. Castro Institute
A Legacy of Courage:
The Story of
Arthur Van Haren, Jr.
Arizona WWII Ace Fighter Pilot
by Latino Perspectives Media and Raul H. Castro Institute
Edited by: Maria Enciso, Micaela Rios, Michelle Klinger / Phoenix College
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. The publishers grant permission
to individual teachers to reproduce the contents of this book for educational purposes and classroom use.
Limit of Liability/ Disclaimer of Warranty: While the author and the publishers have used their best efforts in preparing
this publication, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of its contents
and specifically disclaim any intent to defame or slight any people, places or organizations.
Printed in the United States of America
Arthur Van Haren Jr. Fighter Ace F6F Hornet
Carrier 1943. Official U.S. Navy Photograph
Latino Perspectives Magazine and Phoenix College’s Raul H. Castro Institute have forged a
partnership to research, publish and disseminate the life stories of notable Latinos
in Arizona. Through this joint effort we have published six books: The Faces of Post 41;
Nurturing Tradition, Fostering Change; Not So Easy: Tucson’s 13th Infantry Battalion Marine Reserves; and
Arizona Latina Trailblazers Vol. I, II & III.
To date, over 2,500 copies of these books have been donated to public libraries and
high schools in the state and digital versions of these resources have been contributed
to the Arizona Memory Project (http://azmemory.lib.az.us) where they are accessed on
average 300 times each month by users all over the world. It is our hope the stories we
have documented will inspire a new generation of leaders to serve our country and our
A Legacy of Courage: The Story of Arthur Van Haren Jr. is the latest addition to this collection.
Veteran’s Day 2012
When the Raul H. Castro Institute and
Latino Perspectives Magazine asked if
I would contribute a forward for this
booklet, I accepted with great honor
and family pride. Arthur Van Haren,
Jr. (aka “Tata”) was my grandfather
and my hero. As his oldest grandchild,
I began to explore my Tata’s WWII
service record several years after
he died in 1992. It’s been both my
passion and hobby, and what I found
is that he is a very special combat
veteran and native son of Arizona.
Born into a pioneer Mexican American
family with deep Arizona roots dating
back to the late 1800’s, my Tata went
on to become our state’s top WWII
fighter pilot ace. He was issued several
awards, including the Distinguished
Flying Cross, a very prestigious U.S.
Naval aviator medal. What is so amazing
about my Tata’s story is that he is one of
only a handful of Mexican American
fighter pilot “aces.” In that era, they
did not put Mexicans in cockpits; they
were typically assigned to mopping the
decks of ships. Nonetheless, my Tata’s
Mexican American heritage was very
important to him and he truly embraced
it every day. Born in the small mining
town of Superior and raised in Phoenix,
he never forgot where he came from.
My Tata’s war experiences during his
service in the Pacific Theater deeply
impacted him. The ravages of war, such as
the taking of innocent Japanese lives on
the ground, dogfights with enemy pilots
and the loss of squadron buddies who did
not always come back from flight missions
off the USS Enterprise would haunt
him the rest of his life. Although he was
very appreciative of the recognition he
received for his military accomplishments
back home in Phoenix, my Tata dealt with
personal guilt and remorse for decades.
In the end, my Tata overcame all of life’s
obstacles and curveballs. My Tata and
my hero, USN Lt. Arthur Van Haren,
Jr., “fought the good fight” and in the
end, won ALL of his battles in life.
FOREWARD by Eric J. Halvorsen
Lieut. Arthur Van Haren Jr. and members of VF-2 featured in Life Magazine
(10.23.44) Navy’s “Fighting Two” Added to Greatness at Manila.
The Van Harens:
A Pioneer Arizona Family...............................................12
Arthur Van Haren Jr.
in Early Phoenix........................................................... 15
Service to Country:
The Making of Naval Aviation Ace....................................18
Service to Community:
Arthur Jr.’s Legal Career............................................... 32
Source Listing............................................................ 42
Table of Contents
When Arthur Van Haren, Jr. passed away
in 1992, his family began to look through
his belongings. His son Peter came
across a small diary in a strongbox. He
opened the book and out poured Arthur’s
feelings of anxiety, loneliness, and
elation during his service in the Pacific as
a Navy pilot. It was the voice of a 23-year-old
man, far from his new wife and baby,
facing the dangers of war. A voice that
none of his children had ever heard.
June 12, 1944: “If ever my life seems boring later
on, all I have to do is think back over the last two
days. I’ve had enough excitement to last two lifetimes!
I took off today and almost immediately my plane
started throwing oil and then started smoking to high
heaven. I had a 500 lb. bomb and that worried me
to no end ‘cause I couldn’t get rid of it. The ship told
me to land anyway: so I did and my old luck held right
out. Just as I hit the deck the engine burst into flames
but I wasted no time getting out of the darn thing. The
boys ganged two more this morning and I wasn’t on
that hop. I got over the target later in the afternoon
and the A.A. (Anti-Aircraft artillery) is still pretty
rough. They hit Dennis Floyd head on. He came down
in flames. He was a real fellow. They always seem
to get it. It doesn’t seem quite fair. He had a baby he
never even got to see. What a lousy racket this is!”
Arthur wrote this entry during the
Invasion of the Mariana Islands, where
Introduction his squadron, the VF-2 “Fighting
Rippers,” shot down a total of 26 Japanese
planes. Arthur was among a group of 50
fighter pilots who were based mainly off
the USS Hornet—and out of that group
27 earned the title of ace pilot, shooting
down five or more enemy planes. Arthur,
a Phoenix native of Mexican and Dutch
ancestry, had nine confirmed “kills” and
three unconfirmed. The press and fellow
Phoenicians hailed him as a war hero and
Arizona’s top Naval fighter pilot ace.
Arthur joined the ranks of the few
Mexican American men from Phoenix
to be given public acclaim as
decorated war heroes, although
many from the city’s Mexican
community served in World
War II with distinction. Other
young men who received public
recognition included Valdemar
Córdova, a Purple Heart
winner who flew a B-17 with the
8th Air Force over Germany
and was taken prisoner of war
for over a year; and Silvestre
Herrera, who earned the rare
Congressional Medal of Honor
for capturing eight German
soldiers, then firing on the enemy
for his platoon while severely
wounded in a 1945 battle in France.
But Arthur was not comfortable with
the title of “hero,” and the medals that
came with it. Eventually, he threw away
those medals, and told few stories about
his time in the Pacific. He focused
on his career as a lawyer, providing
service to the local community and
especially to those who were in need.
He helped many in Phoenix, especially
those from the Mexican American
community, in which he had deep roots.
Formal Naval portrait of Arthur Van Haren Jr.
Personal journal of
Arthur Van Haren Jr. written during
his service as a Naval pilot in the Pacific
The Phoenix Van Haren family story
begins in Territorial Arizona and the
Mexican state of Sonora, with a Dutch
immigrant named Peter Van Haren.
As a boy of nine, Peter arrived in the
United States from Holland in 1847.
During the Civil War, he joined the
Union Army and served in the 1st
Regiment California Volunteer Calvary.
This regiment served in the Arizona
and New Mexico territories until 1866.
Peter left the Union Army and a year
later married Francesca Morales in
Chihuahua, Mexico. They lived in
the Arizona Territory in Adamsville,
Pima County, where he farmed.
After Francesca’s death in 1872, Peter
moved north to Florence, Ariz. Two
years later he married Dolores Granillo,
whose family originated in Sonora. He
worked in various mines in the region
and eventually the Van Harens settled
in Sonora. Peter continued mining and
raised five children with Dolores. The
family eventually moved north again,
and Dolores gave birth to her seventh
child, Arthur Sr., in Florence in 1895.
When Peter passed away, Dolores settled
in Phoenix and raised her children alone
while working as a laundress. The Van
Harens joined the growing Mexican
American community of Phoenix,
which in earlier years had composed
about half of the city’s population.
During the time Arthur Sr. grew up
and started his own family, the number
of Phoenicians of Mexican descent
The Van Harens:
A Pioneer Arizona Family
hovered around 10-15 percent of the
total population. Phoenicians of Mexican
descent, along with Blacks, Asians, and
Native Americans, experienced growing
prejudice and discrimination. Most
resided in separate neighborhoods from
Anglos, encountered growing segregation
practices in public places, and had little
voice in the political development of the
city. The Mexican American community
included a small middle class, which
Arthur Van Haren Sr. would soon join.
Arthur Sr. grew up in a poor family, but
improved his circumstances through
hard work and an outgoing personality.
He found work as a delivery boy for local
department stores, while beginning
his sports career as a member of the
Arizona Braves baseball team in 1915.
Two years later, Arthur met and married
Rose Valenzuela of Superior, Ariz.,
and followed in his father’s military
footsteps by joining the Army during
World War I. While serving in the
89th Army Division, he was shot and
wounded, partially disabling his arm.
Arthur was awarded the Purple Heart,
and returned to Phoenix to his wife
and new daughter, Virginia. The family
Mexican American Chamber of Commerce 1940’s. Prominent members of the Mexican American Community. Arthur
Van Haren Sr. First Row Seated Far Right. Courtesy of Frank Barrios
Arthur Van Haren Sr.
moved to Superior, Ariz., where he
found work in a mercantile store. His
son Arthur Jr. was born in Superior
in 1920. The family then moved back
to Phoenix where Arthur Sr. attended
Lamson Business College and learned
accounting, eventually securing a job
with the Arizona Brewing Company
as a comptroller and office manager.
Arthur and Rose served as important role
models to their two children. He and
Rose were among the founding members
of the Immaculate Heart Church in 1928.
Rose assisted with fundraising efforts for
community projects through the Friendly
House and Las Damas organization, and
participated in church activities. In spite
of his injured arm, Arthur Sr. continued
his sports career as an umpire, calling
more than 4,000 baseball and softball
games in professional leagues, high
schools and colleges. He called games
for the famous 1940s women’s softball
team, the A-1 Queens, on which future
state governor Rose Mofford played. He
also served as ring announcer at Phoenix
Madison Square Garden from 1926 to
1952. This career led to his induction
into the Arizona Sports Hall of Fame.
The only son of Arthur Sr. and Rose Van
Haren, Arthur Jr. grew up during the
1920s and 1930s in Phoenix, then a small
city of 50,000 with a vibrant downtown
and surrounded by fields of cotton and
citrus groves. During his childhood, new
“skyscrapers” appeared, such as the twelve-story
Luhrs Tower and the sixteen-story
Hotel Westward Ho. The brand new Union
Station welcomed travelers from across
the country on Southern Pacific trains,
and the first commercial airlines flew
in to Sky Harbor Airport. Phoenicians
shopped at the big department stores like
Korricks, Boston Store, and Sears and
Roebuck. Children visited the arcade
at Joyland, swam at the Riverside pool,
and enjoyed air-conditioned movies at
theatres like the Orpheum, Rialto and
the Fox. They attended a variety of grade
schools, but after eighth grade all young
people entered Phoenix Union High
School—the only secondary school in
town until North High opened in 1938.
During this time period, unless one
could “pass” as Euro American, a
Phoenician of Mexican descent generally
lived in a different world. Children
attended primarily Mexican American
churches, attended grade schools with
mainly Mexican American students,
and played sports, swam or joined
clubs with other Mexican American
children. Restaurants, pools, and most
movie theatres practiced segregation,
which impacted those of Mexican
descent as well as Phoenix’s small
African American community. Two
Spanish-language newspapers, El Sol
and El Mensajero, provided the latest news
and commentary. In the early 1930s,
the Great Depression brought hard
times to Phoenix families, especially
minority families. The Friendly House,
opened in 1922, provided Mexican
American families with language and
job training classes, along with New
Deal economic assistance programs.
Most people of Mexican descent lived
south of Van Buren Street, the common
line of racial division in early Phoenix.
The majority lived south of the Southern
Arthur Van Haren Jr.
in Early Phoenix
Newspaper clipping of the sports career of Art Van Haren
Sr. by noted cartoonist Ray Artigue
Pacific railroad in barrios like Grant Park
and Golden Gate. Only a handful of
middle-class Mexican Americans resided
north of this line, mainly in the Garfield
neighborhood near 7th and Roosevelt
streets. In the 1920s, the Van Harens
moved to a home north of McDowell
Road. The family’s Dutch surname
may have allowed them access to a home
usually off limits to minorities due to
race-restrictive housing covenants.
Arthur attended Monroe Elementary
School and then Phoenix Union High
School (PUHS). Gregarious and talented
like his father, Arthur Jr. had a natural
athletic ability, earning honors at
PUHS as an All-State quarterback and
All-State catcher in baseball. Arthur’s
son Daniel recalls, “He was a Mexican
growing up with a non-Mexican name
and I don’t think it was necessarily that
he shied away from being a Mexican,
but I think he decided that he was going
to be something a little bit more than
just another Mexican kid. He was a
star athlete, and as a matter of fact, was
drafted by the New York Yankees to play
baseball for them. Unfortunately, he
blew out his knee playing football before
he was supposed to join the Yankees.”
Arthur enrolled at the University
of Arizona in 1938 on an athletic
scholarship, where he played baseball
as a catcher and joined the football
team. In three years, the course of
his life would change, as a world war
gained momentum and Arizona’s
young men and women began to
consider t Arthur Van Haren Jr. at 4 yrs pretending to play the heir part in the conflict.
During World War II, between 375,000
and 500,000 Mexican Americans across
the nation served in the armed forces. A
month after the attack on Pearl Harbor,
Phoenix newspaper El Mensajero declared:
“The Spanish Americans and citizens of
Mexico were an element of great energy
and aid in the last war with Germany,
and now we should show that we are of
the same disposition, ready to sacrifice
all that we possess, even the precious
blood of our sons, to the end that the
nation reaches a decisive victory.” Arthur
Van Haren Jr. would be among many
from Phoenix to join military service.
Arthur originally intended to join
the Army, but instead chose the Navy,
enlisting in June of 1941. He had already
joined the ROTC at the University of
Arizona. He later told his children that
he had an interest in the cavalry but
“couldn’t find boots that fit.” Little did
he know where his Navy career would
take him. Once in the Navy, Arthur
chose pilot training, an unusual path for
Mexican Americans, since few became
pilots or even served as aircrew during
the Second World War. Although he had
never flown, he thought he might enjoy
the challenge, and it seemed to fit his
competitive and “daredevil” personality.
Service to Country:
The Making of Naval Aviation Ace
Arthur Van Haren Jr. pictured with his parents Rose and
Arthur Van Haren Sr., 1942
He traveled to Long Beach, California
for preliminary flight school, and
enjoyed the social scene while stationed
there. A blind date would change his life
forever. This particular date took him
to the Palladium Club in Los Angeles
with a buddy and their two dates. Daniel
remembers how his mother, Elizabeth
Yates, met Arthur: “The person that she
was set up with—she didn’t really like
very much and wound up liking my dad
quite a bit better. I’m not quite sure who
it was that set it up. My dad obviously
was very gregarious and outgoing and
my mom was very introverted and not
outgoing. So they were, I guess, a match
made in heaven.” Elizabeth, born in Los
Angeles, was a budding fashion model
and worked at an Eastman Kodak factory.
Arthur transferred to Jacksonville, Fla.
in mid-1941 to begin pilot training, and
his relationship with Elizabeth flourished
despite the distance. They decided to
get married, and Elizabeth traveled with
Arthur Sr. and Rose to Florida in March
of 1942. His daughter Diane recalls,
“They were just very, very in love. Now,
were my grandparents thrilled that he was
marrying a gringa, as you say? No, because
she was the first one in the family—they
were not thrilled—and it took a while
for them to accept her… They were very
worried for him because he was only 22
and they felt it was a rushed marriage.”
Arthur Jr. and Elizabeth exchanged
vows in April 1942, immediately after
Arthur received his gold pilot wings.
Arthur rose to the rank of lieutenant
and served as a flight instructor in
Jacksonville for over a year. Daniel recalls
that his father was proud to be chosen
as a flight instructor, but keenly felt the
peer pressure to join the men fighting
the war abroad. Diane, born in February
of 1943, remembers, “My dad was sent
overseas right after I was born. Mother
came back to live in Pasadena with her
mother and her grandmother and I did
not see my dad for about a year and half.”
Elizabeth and Arthur Van Haren Jr. on a date at the Earl
Carrol Theatre Restaurant in Hollywood, 1944
In June of 1943, Arthur joined the Naval
VF-2 squadron, and trained in the new
Grumman F6F Hellcat fighter planes.
The military had just introduced the
carrier-based aircraft to replace the older
F4F Wildcats, and it developed into the
most successful aircraft in Naval history.
They headed out for Pearl Harbor in
October. Arthur’s first diary entry
reveals his emotions on his departure.
Oct. 9,1943: I left L.A. for Alameda to join my
squadron. Left B [Elizabeth] at Burbank airport.
I shudder to think of how much I’m going to miss
her. I’d give almost anything if I could spare
her the same loneliness I know I’m due for.
As Arthur settled in for the long ride
across the Pacific to the war zone, the
American military was revamping its
strategy in the fight against the Japanese.
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the
Japanese gained a significant foothold
in the Pacific. American-led offensives,
such as the battles at Guadalcanal and
Midway, resulted in minimal gains for
the Allies. The U.S. shifted tactics and
implemented a major effort to occupy
the islands of the Central Pacific by
amassing American warships, aircraft
and troops in the area. The overall
goal during the next year and a half
was to demolish the Japanese Navy,
island bases and strongholds, and to
reduce communications in order to
eventually establish Allied forces near
the Japanese homeland. Arthur and his
Navy VF-2 Squadron were involved in
a 13-month American offensive effort
to start the conquest of the Philippines
through a series of raids and battles
in the Gilbert Islands, Marshall
Islands, New Guinea, the Marianas
(Saipan, Tinian and Guam), the
Philippine Sea, and the Palau Islands.
The “Fighting Two” Squadron served
with the USS Enterprise in its initial
months of active duty. Arthur recalls
the first experiences with the fast and
deadly F6F Hellcat fighter plane and his
loneliness while stationed near Hawaii.
Landing the planes on the limited
runway of a carrier was not an easy task.
Nov. 10, 1943: Here we are, the whole squadron aboard the
U.S.S. Enterprise. Boy what a day! Everything really is snaffoo
[chaotic] — The deck crew is green as grass and the ship is one
jumble of confusion. Six of our planes were wrecked taxing on deck
by just plain mis-handling. “By” Johnson (not too sharp) had
emergency landing on deck, crashed and we had some bond fire.
They finally put it out and tossed the plane overboard. $100,000
gone to hell! “Ozzie” Osborn tried in vain to get Skip to let him
land, (out of gas) but the ship circled... He finally had to go in
the drink making a water landing- $200,000 gone to hell. We
Elizabeth Yates looking skyward, May 1941 thought sure he’d go visit the other world but thank God he got out
Lt. Arthur Van Haren Jr. pictured with Flight Instructor class, U.S. Naval Air Station, New Orleans, L.A.
safely and DD [a Destroyer] picked him up. How long can our luck
hold out? I received a wonderful letter from my B. before we left
Oahu. God only knows how much I love her. I guess I sound like a
darn martyr, but if it weren’t for her and the baby I wouldn’t worry
about getting out at all. I’ve just got to make it for that reason.
Arthur’s son Daniel recalls how his
father learned to land at night, and the
dangers it entailed: “When they got out
there on the Enterprise, at first, when
they got out past Hawaii, they had to
qualify for night landing and I mean,
you talk about scary. You take all the
dangers that are involved in landing
on a ship during the day and make it
about a hundred times as hard. And
that’s the night landing. Again, all they
had were the lights of the ship guiding
them. At times, they didn’t have even
that because the ship was standard
cover. So they would hit runway lights
to show these guys where it was and then
turn them off. They just hoped they
knew where that deck was when they
landed. It was a pretty scary thing.”
The Allies’ new military strategy began
with Operation Galvanic in the Gilbert
Islands in November 1943, in which
Arthur flew his first bombing and combat
missions. Their goal was to protect the
27th Infantry Division landing in Makin.
Their mission was to hit the radio tower,
why the Japs won’t come out of their holes. We’ve
got that coming, I guess. We’re ready, I hope.
P.S. Lost one S.B.D.[Navy scout
bomber] & pilot today. It really all seems
so useless and foolish, doesn’t it?
Nov. 21, 1943: I saw my first one go down in flames
today. Our flight took off at 0500 and immediately
we were vectored to a “Bogie” [Unidentified aircraft].
It turned out to be a “Betty” (Jap twin engine bomber
- 7 men). We made our Brackit run. The Skipper
and Dan Carmichael coming in from the left stern
and myself and Dave Park coming in from the right
stern. The Skipper opened up first crippling him
almost fatally then I came in for the kill. He blew up
and crashed in no time flat. Boy it all happened in
nothing flat. Funny how I was able to be calm and my
mind was clear. Thank you dear God! We drew a lot
of return fire on our run from the tail gunner, but all
he could do for dear old Tojo wasn’t enough. Amen.
After a raid on the Marshall Islands from
the USS Enterprise, the VF-2 squadron
transferred to the USS Hornet. Between
March and May of 1944, their goal
included lending air support to cover
the invasion at New Guinea, conducting
air raids against Japanese bases in
the Caroline Islands and supporting
the amphibious assault to occupy the
Marianas Islands. During this time
Arthur flew in many bombing runs—and
watched American pilots lose their lives
in planes hit by anti-aircraft artillery or
through crashing on the Hornet’s deck.
boats and seaplanes, while avoiding
Japanese anti-artillery fire. The day
before the raid, Arthur was a bundle of
nerves, knowing he’d be on the first run.
Nov. 18, 1943: Well, tomorrow is the big day! We
take off at 4:00 A.M and hit “Makin” at dawn. I
don’t know quite how to feel about it. I can say for sure
though I sure don’t feel like dying. Believe you me I’m
going to be one “heads up” boy. I could get it, I guess,
but it will be easy for me. I’ll never know it. Please
God take care of my B... Just a touch of the jitters I
guess—kind of like the night before a football game—
only a little more for keeps. I’ll be alright as soon as
“the first shot is fired” P.S., I’m firing the first one.
The Gilbert Islands invasion began
on November 19 and lasted for
several days. Arthur recounted
his experiences in the air.
Nov. 19, 1943: The first is over by gosh. What a
day! We’ve been on the go since 0300. We took off
at 0430 and had a hellish, snaffoo night join up.
We started hitting “Makin” about 0600 and what a
beating we gave that place. We went down on our first
strafing run from 15000’ at 400 kts. That should
figure better than 600 miles an hour… Gosh I wasn’t
scared or nervous at all once we started the dive… We
go after them again tomorrow, bright and early. Maybe
they’ll come out of their holes this time. I frankly hope
they do. The sooner the better. Let’s get it over with.
Nov. 20, 1943: A flight of 28 of us went over to
strafe and help our army of occupation move in on
“Makin.” Everything was timed pretty good. The
Cruisers and Destroyers lined up on the lagoon side
of the Island and shelled the hell out of them for a
half an hour. Most beautiful sight I’ve seen yet. Then
we went in right down to the tree-tops and strafed
them—all the time this was going on, our landing
boats were moving in. They shot at us with 50 cal,
but didn’t hit any of us fatally. I figure the Island
should be ours by now. Now that most of the tension
is off, I’m awfully tired. None of us can understand Pilot Arthur Van Haren Jr. in Hellcat #32 fighter plane during (Mirana Turkey Shoot??)
Flight deck of the USS Hornet CV12. By PHCS W.M. Cox,
USN (Official U.S. Navy photograph USN 1116887.) [Public
domain], via Wikimedia Commons
He worried about his sense of direction
and getting lost during missions. He
brought his rosary with him on every
flight, and thanked God, whom he called
“the Ole Master,” each time he returned
safely. He missed Elizabeth considerably.
March 29, 1944: Tomorrow is the (“K” day). I’m on
the first strike taking off at 0620. All indications lead
us to believe that it’s going to be something tough. We’re
to hit the shipping in the harbor and the AA should be
something terrific. Just in case B, my precious, please
be real brave for me… Remember how much your Arty
loved you and try to believe in this little quotation I
picked up that was written for us. “As long as there
is one of us there is both of us” Goodnight pumpkin.
I’ll wait forever. Just take your time and keep a little
place in your heart for me. Others will undoubtedly
Arthur and Elizabeth with daughter Diane in Pasadena, CA
love you, but never like I’ve loved and adored you.
Never forget that. God bless you and our baby.
Arthur and the VF-2 squadron took
part in the June 1944 Marianas Islands
campaign. Here, American carriers
struck against the Japanese strongholds
of Guam, Saipan and Tinian. On June
6, D-Day in Europe, Arthur noted,
“If the taking of the Marianas is done efficiently
and in an expedient manner, it certainly ought
to do a lot toward shortening this darn war.”
Maneuvering his F4F Hellcat, which
was much faster than the Japanese
aircraft, Arthur shot down his first two
planes during a successful bombing run
over Guam. After the June 11 attack,
Arthur penned his thoughts about the
accomplishment, which later earned
him a Distinguished Flying Medal.
June 11, 1944: Well the first old hurdle is down!
We really had an aerial battle for a change. Zekes
[Japanese Zero fighter planes] and plenty of them! We
shot down 23 of them. I got two all by myself. They
make lively fires and it was a glorious feeling indeed.
Funny how I wasn’t a bit scared and just used my old
noggin-head! I’m a bit jittery now though. Especially
since Dan Carmichael, (a swell Joe) missed a mid-air
collision by about a foot. He was really on the ball. He
saved us. There is no doubt of that. We did lose Duff
who was on my wing. We went into a strafing run on
the field and he got shot down. Someone claims he saw
him make a water landing and get out, but I doubt
very much if he’ll ever be picked up. Thank you dear
God for staying with me. I swear I shall never forget
your help and never be ungrateful to you if I can pull
through the rest of this. Bless my B too—the precious
angel that she is. I’ll come back for you, baby.
Eight days later, Arthur entered the
Battle of the Philippine Sea, an attack
on the Japanese Carrier Force located
west of Guam. Known as the “Great
Marianas Turkey Shoot,” American
planes destroyed more than 400 Japanese
aircraft and three carriers. Called “the
greatest carrier battle in history,” this
signaled a huge defeat for Japan and
opened the way for the Americans to
occupy the Philippines and Formosa.
It was during this battle that Arthur
earned the Distinguished Flying Cross
for shooting down two Japanese Zeros,
and an Air Medal for sighting and
destroying an enemy scout plane.
June 19, 1944: I will never forget this day! After
what the Navy air corps did today. I’m proud to be
one little member of it. They started coming after
us in flocks this morning from all angles. However,
very few of them got to ever take a look at our fleet.
Only one B.B. [Battleship] got a bomb hit and it
was very meager. The whole fleet shot down more
than 250 Jap planes of which the flyers got nearly
all. Our particular task force got over a hundred
and hear this—our squadron got 48—over half.
There are four carriers in our force. Of the 48,
yours truly got two Zekes that went down in glorious
flames. Twelve of us caught about 15 of them coming
in about 20 miles from our force… Our squadron
has 112 now and the spirit is tremendously good.
June 20, 1944: This has been another unforgettable
day! First of all, Red and I went on a 325 mile search
this A.M. in search of the Jap fleet. We saw no sight
of it but we did get a “Jake” (Jap float plane) apiece.
This makes my fifth plane and Red’s seventh. We got
back in good shape. Later on in the afternoon they
got a contact with the Jap fleet and immediately sent
a strike after it. Red and I didn’t go because of our
morning hops, thank God. They found it alright and
did quite some damage to it. Sinking some of their
carriers for sure... They’re still getting fellows out of
the drink and the plane loss was terrific… I guarantee
you that I’m really getting tired of all this though.
In July, Arthur flew in the raid on the
Kazan Islands, targeting Iwo Jima.
He received the Gold Star for the
Distinguished Flying Cross for his
actions, as summarized in his letter
of Citation: “An aggressive airman,
Lieutenant Van Haren rendered
fighter protection during a bombing
attack on an enemy air base despite the
advantage in altitude held by numerically
superior enemy planes and succeeded in
destroying three enemy single-engine
fighter craft. His skill, courage and
devotion to duty in the face of grave
hazards reflect the highest credit upon
Lieutenant Van Haren and the United
States Naval Service.” Upon his return,
Arthur had few words for the battle.
July 3, 1944: Hit Iwo Jima. What a fight! Darn
lucky to be back. We lost Butler and O’Neal and
Dobbins. I got three more Zekes. Details disgust
me, besides I don’t feel like talking about it.
The VF-2 Squadron continued their
work at chipping away at Japanese bases
in the next few months with more
island raids. Arthur was tired of the
war, and hoping that his squadron
would be released from duty soon.
Referring to his military awards, he
stated, “By the way I got 2 D.F.C’s and an air
medal a couple of days ago. Stuff for the birds if
I’ve ever seen it. It was literally raining medals.”
In preparation for General MacArthur’s
invasion of Morotai, American carrier
raids began September 9 on south and
central Philippines. Three days later,
Arthur led a division of escort fighters
to protect bombers, and intercepted an
attacking group of Japanese fighters,
shooting down a bomber. He received a
Gold Star in lieu of a second Air Medal.
A week later he recalled the encounter.
Arthur Van Haren Jr. posed in
pilot flight suit
the air and they didn’t know anything
about actual combat… The Zeroes
didn’t have any armor on them at all
for one thing; if they took any fire at
all it was usually a fatality for them.”
Arthur reflected that he didn’t feel
that all Japanese pilots wished to throw
away their lives and that he “decided
they want to return home alive the
same as we do.” Daniel recalled a story
his father would tell, set at the end of
one of the long battles. “It was getting
dark and they were getting low on gas,
they always had to watch how much fuel
they had left. And I even think my dad
might’ve been out of ammo. He made
eye contact with a Japanese pilot. It was
kind of like they both just decided that
the Japanese pilot was probably in the
same shape: getting low on gas, probably
didn’t know how far his ship had gone
since the last time he saw it. So they just
kind of saluted each other and took off
on their different ways. Neither one of
them tried to the shoot the other down.”
In addition to his Flying Cross, Air
Medal and Gold Stars, Arthur received
the Presidential Unit Citation for service
on the USS Enterprise and the USS
Horne, and other World War II campaign
medals including the Philippine
Liberation Ribbon with one bronze star.
After reuniting with Elizabeth and
baby Diane, Arthur returned to the
role of flight instructor, this time based
at the Glenview Naval Air Station just
outside of Chicago. Meanwhile, his son
Peter was born in August. The Navy
discharged him in October of 1945 and
he reunited with his family in California.
Sept. 20, 1944: We lost Randy Carlson to A.A at
Palau. One swell fellow, like all of them. I got my
ninth plane at Negros. A Zeke, chased him from
14000 to 5000. He bailed out. Then I had a hell of
a time getting back my altitude. Clouds saved me. As
ever, dear God take care of my B. Just in case I don’t
make it tomorrow or the next day. She’s worth it.
Arthur’s final diary entry says it all:
Sept. 28, 1944: Pulled in to Manus [Island].
On our way home! Need I say more!
Arthur left the Pacific for the U.S.
mainland. His squadron didn’t
participate in the final push into the
Philippine Islands, which began with the
Battle of Leyte in October. The capture
of the Philippines would be the longest
and largest American military action in
the Pacific, leading to the bloody battles
of Iwo Jima and Okinawa in 1945.
Arthur’s squadron, “the Fighting
Rippers,” provide an example of the
Navy’s aerial superiority. It became the
top fighter squadron in the Pacific, with
more ace pilots and total victories than
any other squadron. The VF-2 in total
shot down 261 Japanese planes, with
245 destroyed on the ground. They lost
seven in the squadron. During World
War II, 1300 fighter pilots gained
the title of “ace pilot,” credited with
destroying five or more enemy aircraft
in aerial combat. Of these, only 371
served in the U.S. Navy. Of the total
F6F Hellcat pilot aces, Arthur Van
Haren Jr. is tied at 38th in the ranking.
The aerial superiority of the VF-2 and
other squadrons led to the Allied victory
in the Pacific. Arthur later told his son
Daniel that, “the Japanese were using
pilots that they hadn’t fully trained
yet. They would get these guys up in
Phoenix news article: Former Phoenix Athlete Wins
Laurels in ‘Hot’ Air Unit
With the G.I. Bill in hand, Arthur
returned to the University of Arizona
to finish his bachelor’s degree and enter
law school. He attended law classes
along with other young men that had
promising futures, such as Morris Udall,
future U.S. Representative and leading
environmentalist, as well as future
Arizona governor Raul H. Castro. He
also graduated with Hayzel Daniels,
Phoenix’s first Black attorney and one
of Arizona’s first African American
State legislators. Hayzel was part of a
legal team that brought suit against
Phoenix Union High School District
to desegregate the high school, and
against Wilson Elementary to desegregate
elementary schools, which led to the 1953
desegregation of all Arizona schools.
Arthur graduated law school and passed
the Bar Exam in 1948, at the age of 28.
His son Daniel, named after Arthur’s
flying buddy, Daniel Carmichael, was
born on the day he passed his exam.
The Van Harens, now a family of five,
settled back in Central Phoenix. The
city had grown considerably since the
1930s when Arthur left, doubling in
size to over 100,000 people. As with
other Mexican American men in the
community, obtaining a degree helped
Arthur move into a higher paying,
professional job. His education afforded
him entry into an elite group of Mexican
American lawyers in the Valley, which
included Albert Garcia and Valdemar
Córdova, both World War II veterans.
Other Mexican American attorneys of
note, Greg Garcia and Ralph Estrada,
became involved with the 1950s Tolleson
school desegregation case which ended
the practice of establishing separate
schools for Mexican American children.
In 1949 Arthur joined the Oliver B.
James Law Firm as a defense lawyer.
In one case, he defended 20-year-old
Geraldo Rodriguez, who was accused of
murdering another young man at the
Willow Breeze Dance Hall. Spanish-language
newspaper El Sol reported on
the case and congratulated Arthur on
a successful defense stating, “He gave
a brilliant defense, he worked hard
and showed once more his capacity
and his talent, that he is a true lawyer
and an honorable young man for
whom we predict a bright future.”
Arthur moved from private to
public practice in late 1949 when he
replaced Dow Ben Roush as Deputy
County Attorney. In this consistently
understaffed office, Arthur worked as a
prosecutor for three years. He prosecuted
assault, robbery, and homicide cases
and had several interesting cases during
his time with the County. For example,
Arthur was in charge of investigating the
“digger machine” business in Maricopa
County. These “claw machines,”—similar
to the machines filled with brightly
colored stuffed animals that stand
Service to Community:
Arthur Jr.’s Legal Career
Staff of County Attorney’s Office. Arizona Weekly Gazette, April 5, 1951. Back Row, left to right: H. Lavon Payne, Frank
Haze Burch, R. H. Renaud, James J. Caretto, Newman W. White, John J, Flynn, Arthur Van Haren. Front row, left to
right, Douglas, H. Clark, Jack M. Anderson, Warren L. McCarthy, and Anthony O. Jones.
in the corner of many grocery stores
today—were tied to gambling because
users would obtain the merchandise
in the machine using the “claw” and
then exchange it for money. Located
mainly in bars, authorities debated
whether the machines were a “game
of skill” or a gambling device.
In 1950, Arthur led the prosecution
team in a highly publicized murder case
against a woman accused of shooting
her fiancé “in a lover’s quarrel” on New
Year’s Eve in 1949. The defense team
administered a lie detector test to the
accused, Elaine George, prior to the
start of the trial, and requested to use the
results. Judge Fred Struckmeyer allowed
the results to be introduced as evidence.
The prosecution lost the case, but it was
the first time evidence from a lie detector
test had been used in an Arizona trial.
Arthur did not always bring cases to
court. Much of his time was spent
investigating crimes to keep the case from
going before a judge. In one incident,
Arthur investigated the shooting of an
Avondale man by his 19-year-old wife.
Arthur’s probe led to the County clearing
her of the murder because she had been
acting in self-defense. Arthur found
that the man had pointed a gun at her
and threatened to kill her and her baby,
saying she was not “a fit mother” because
she worked as a waitress rather than
staying home to care for the baby. After
the court cleared her, Arthur received
a thank you note from the family of the
young woman, which stated, “We wish
to thank you for your kindness shown
us. And for your wonderful decision
in the Vowell case. Everyone feels so
grateful to you. We wish you the best
of everything for the coming years.”
By 1952, Arthur decided he preferred
to work as a defense attorney. His
outgoing personality fit the role. Daniel
recalls, “My dad was the kind of person
that would make instant friends with
anybody. It was just the way he was. He
was the kind of person that would get
his shoes shined at a stand on Jefferson
Street in Phoenix and become best
buds with the guy shining his shoes.
It didn’t make any difference whether
the guy was a shoe shiner or a CEO of
Dow Corporation—it didn’t make any
difference to my dad at all.” With a
likeable personality, he attracted much
of his business by word-of-mouth.
Arthur formed a new law partnership
with fellow World War II veterans
John Flynn and Harry Stewart. They
Arthur Van Haren, Jr. Asst. County
Attorney , Elaine George on trial for
New Years Eve Murder, Judge Lorna
opened an office in the Heard Building
after resigning from the County
Attorney’s office. Interestingly, Arthur’s
replacement with the County was future
Federal Judge Thomas Tang, who would
be the first Chinese American to serve
in the Ninth Circuit in the late 1970s.
Arthur’s daughter Diane recalled the
new law team of Van Haren, Flynn and
Stewart: “They were the best defense
attorney team in town. They were all
real go-getters. Of course nobody likes
defense attorneys until you need one.
But they were a big team… My dad, I’d
say, was an attorney for the little man;
the person who needed help.” Margaret
Lopez Trujillo, who served as court
bailiff for Judge Renz Jennings in the
late 1940s, remembers that Arthur
was an aggressive attorney, “like a little
bantam rooster.” She says, “He was always
well prepared. His diction was great
and he had a great speaking voice. He
did a lot of pro bono work. He was just a
very good at doing community work.”
Arthur also helped other military
families. In one case, Arthur
represented Frances Aguilar, the widow
of an airman killed in Germany. Her
husband had been in the process of
changing the life insurance claim
to name her as beneficiary when he
died. Her father-in-law argued that
he was the sole beneficiary. The case
went all the way to the Ninth Circuit
Court in San Francisco, where Arthur
helped Frances win the case.
The Flynn, Stewart and Van Haren
partnership ended in 1955 and the three
lawyers went their own ways. ( John Flynn
would later represent Ernesto Miranda
in the 1966 case Miranda vs. Arizona. This
case led to the Supreme Court opinion
that all individuals under arrest must be
advised of their right to remain silent
and to obtain legal counsel, known as
the Miranda Warning.) Arthur moved
into a second law partnership, Van
Haren, Forquer and Wolfe, in July of
1955. Robert Forquer was a former
administrative assistant to Congressman
John Rhodes in Washington, D.C.,
and Rhodes’ campaign manager. Wolfe
was a former labor relations director
and attorney for International Metal
Products Company in Phoenix. Their
office was in the Mayer-Heard Building.
During the 1950s, Arthur became more
active in the community outside of his
career. He served as Chairman of the
Phoenix Athletic Commission, joined
the Luke Greenway American Legion
Post, and the VFW. Arthur also joined
the board of the newly formed Boys Club
of North Phoenix and served as second
vice president alongside Calvin H. Udall,
founding president and director. He
dabbled in politics as a member of the
1954 Veterans Committee for Rhodes
for Congress. When the rumor hit
that a new Maricopa County Superior
Court judge position might open, the
Arizona Republic reported that over 800
individuals had signed petitions to name
Arthur to the position. Interestingly,
the newspaper added, “The Spanish
American folk within the Democratic
Party are spark plugging the move on
behalf of Mr. Van Haren Jr. as the judge.”
The position never materialized.
While in private practice, Arthur
moved into several part-time positions.
He served as Special Counsel for the
Maricopa County Highway Department,
a position he took in 1959. A year later,
he served a one-year term as a City of
Phoenix municipal judge. City Manager
Ray Wilson appointed Arthur to serve
as a junior magistrate in the three-man
court system, joining Judge John
Bradford and C.W. Pensinger. A few
years later, Arthur took the job as the
Executive Secretary for Maricopa County
Planning and Zoning Department.
By the 1960s, Arthur operated his
own private law practice as a defense
attorney. He often provided pro-bono
legal counseling. Arthur’s son Daniel
reflects, “Most of his clients were poor
people; they didn’t have a great deal of
money, with the exception of the guy that
owned Westside Toyota, who paid his
legal bill by giving my dad a new Supra
every two years—for about eight years.
But most of them didn’t have a great deal
of money. They always could pay their
legal bill by doing something around
our house or by providing produce for
us or, I don’t know, there were about
four or five different ways I remember
that we got paid. We never were a poor
family; we actually had it pretty good
as most families go but were never rich
by any stretch of the imagination.”
Arthur finally retired from private law
practice in 1985, after moving to Dewey,
Ariz. with his wife Elizabeth, who retired
as secretary to the principal of Xavier
High School. By this time, their three
children had grown and moved on.
Arthur Van Haren Jr. lived in Dewey with
his wife until his death in 1992 from colon
cancer. Elizabeth passed away in 2009.
As Diane and her mother read through
Arthur’s diary, they cried together as
they read about his fears, his exhaustion,
and his loneliness for his family. They
shared their pride in his outstanding
military service during a war in which
hundreds of thousands of Americans lost
their lives while protecting American
liberty. Although Arthur escaped
unharmed, he was wounded emotionally,
and it changed his life forever.
Arthur’s service to his country
represented a dichotomy. He excelled
in his duties, one of the few Arizonans
to earn an ace pilot designation, and
certainly among only a handful of highly
decorated Mexican American World War
II veterans to gain public recognition.
Yet he didn’t want the accolades that his
“war hero” status brought. His son Daniel
reflects, “I think it embarrassed him
more than anything else. I don’t think
he was seeking that kind of publicity or
notoriety… He thought of himself as a
hero because he came back to his wife
and his daughter. That was the only
heroism he needed to lay claim to.”
Inspired by the tradition of his father
and grandfather’s military service in the
world wars, Peter Van Haren enlisted
after college and served in Vietnam. He
eventually followed his father’s footsteps
into law school, working as an attorney
in various capacities. He remembers
that as a lawyer, Arthur found ways to
help those in need, and that, too, is a
point of pride. “I think he was a hero in
my eyes for that… and just the work he
did as a representative for the people.
I think he would like to be known as
that. He was able to help represent and
guide people and give a voice to people
that otherwise wouldn’t have a voice.”
Fellow law school graduate and former
Governor of Arizona (1975-1977), Raul
H. Castro remembers Arthur as someone
who was willing to lend a helping hand,
often supporting him and other minority
leaders in Arizona. He noted that Arthur
had a strong passion for assisting the
unfortunate, “He was a good guy and
a good citizen, no question about it.”
Van Haren family portrait: Diane, Arthur Jr., and
Elizabeth. Back Row: Pete and Dan (left to right)
In December 2007, the City of Phoenix
dedicated several eight-foot paintings
commemorating exceptional aviators in
Arizona history at Phoenix Sky Harbor
Airport. The city’s Public Art Program
chose Arthur Jr. along with four other
pilots to be painted by famous artist
Robert McCall, often referred to as the
NASA artist. This vibrant mural, which
hangs near Terminal 4, depicts Arthur
standing on a flight deck, positioned
with hands on hips as a squadron takes
flight in the background. Other pilots in
the series included Vietnam helicopter
pilot Fred Ferguson, Tuskegee Airman
Vernon Haywood, World War I pilot
Frank Luke Jr., and Women Air Force
Service pilot Ruth Dailey Helm.
In 2012, due in part to the tireless efforts
of Arthur’s grandson, Eric Halvorson,
Arthur Van Haren Jr. will be the first
Latino inducted into the Arizona Aviation
Hall of Fame. Located inside the Dorothy
Finley Space Gallery, the Aviation Hall
of Fame was established in 1985 to pay
tribute to Arizona men and women
who made significant contributions to
aerospace and aviation development.
Arthur’s posthumous induction will place
him alongside other notable Arizona
aviators such as Sen. Barry M. Goldwater
(1990) and Sen. John S. McCain (1997).
Eric’s mother, Diane, reflected, “I
can’t tell you whether if he was alive
today—‘cause none of this research
was started by my son until after he
died—if he would appreciate having
this place in history. But we appreciate
him having a place in Arizona’s
history, because it was important.”
Arthur’s is a story of courage and service
exemplifying the pride that Phoenix
Latinos have in their community’s
long-standing heritage and in the
contributions to Arizona. He was but
one example of the thousands of Latinos
who have played a part in American
history, whether through military
service, community service or beyond.
His grandson, Eric Halvorson noted that
the greatest legacy left by Arthur Van
Haren, Jr. was his passionate love of life,
his humility and compassion to those
in need, and his love for those that he
knew, as well as those that he did not. “My
Tata excelled in the Anglo-dominated
sports and legal worlds, but never forgot
his rich Mexican American roots.”
Mural by artist Robert
T. McCall, Title Arthur
VanHaren, Jr. 2008 com-mission.
Media is oil paint
on canvas 72” x 57”
Courtesy of Phoenix Airport
“A. Van Haren, Valley Lawyer, WWII Hero.”
Arizona Republic. August 11, 1992.
Arizona Aviation Hall of Fame Nomination
Form for Arthur Van Haren Jr. Compiled by
Eric Halvorson. Nomination form includes
military records, performance reports, citations,
correspondence, website articles, and photos.
“Arizonan looks back on 83 years.”
Arizona Republic. November 3, 1978.
Athenaeum Public History Group. Phoenix
Hispanic Historic Property Survey. (Phoenix:
City of Phoenix Historic Preservation, 2006).
Arthur Van Haren Jr. legal career scrapbook.
Van Haren family collection. Includes
newspaper articles, photos, letters and
other items related to his legal career.
Selected articles include:
“Art Van Haren Jr. Succeeds Roush in
County Legal Post.” Arizona Weekly
Gazette. December 9, 1949.
“El Lic. Arturo Van Haren Jr. Gana Pleito
en Corte Superior.” El Sol. July 29, 1949.
“Woman, 45 Men Pass Bar Test.”
Arizona Republic, n.d.
“Meet a New Phoenix Attorney.” Arizona
Weekly Gazette. February 18, 1949.
“Trial Begins in Dance Hall Fight
Killing.” Arizona Republic, n.d.
“County Officers Promise More Raids; Seize
5 Digger Machines.” Arizona Republic, n.d.
“Court Opens Mrs. George Trial.”
Arizona Republic, n.d.
“Mrs. George’s Defense Wins Lie Detector
Test Fight.” Phoenix Gazette. n.d.
“Jury Acquits Elaine George” Arizona
Republic. November 7, 1950.
“Inquest Clears Wife of Avondale
Killing.” Arizona Republic. n.d.
“5-Year Fight Ends—GI Mite is Awarded
to Widow.” Arizona Republic, n.d.
“Flynn, Van Haren, and Stewart, Deputy
County Attorneys, Form Law Partnership.
Arizona Weekly Gazette. October 7, 1952.
“Van Haren, Forquer, Wolfe Form
New Law Partnership.” Arizona
Weekly Gazette. July 19, 1955.
“Van Haren Seen in Planning Post.”
Phoenix Gazette. January 6, 1966.
Arthur Van Haren Jr. military scrapbook.
Van Haren family collection. Includes World
War II era newspaper clippings, photos,
military citations and publications.
Selected articles include:
“Navy Ace.” Arizona Republic. July 9, 1944.
“Ex-Arizona Athlete Stars as Jap ‘Hunter’.”
Arizona Republic. September 3, 1944.
“Art Jr. Calls Strikes Now.” Los Angeles
Examiner. September 17, 1944.
“Former Phoenix Athlete Wins Laurels In ‘Hot’
Air Unit.” Phoenix Gazette. October 21, 1944.
“Van Haren, Pacific Ace, Coming Home.”
Phoenix Gazette. October 27, 1944.
“‘Fighting Two’: Air Saga.” Christian
Science Monitor. October 30, 1944.
“Nip Planes Getting Tougher, Returned Navy Pilot
Says” Arizona Republic. November 5, 1944..
“The Tale of the Hornet.” Unpublished document.
Brief History of World War II: The Pacific War.
U.S. Army Center for Military History. Http://
Diary of Arthur Van Haren, Jr. Unpublished
document in the Van Haren family collection.
Glass, Kenneth and Harold Buell. The Hornets
and Their Heroic Men. (Hamilton, Ohio:
American Printing and Lithograph Co., 1998).
Halvorson, Diane. Interview by author,
September 10, 2011. Phoenix, Arizona.
Luckingham, Bradford. Minorities in Phoenix: A
Profile of Mexican American, Chinese American
and African American Communities, 1860-1992.
(Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994).
Luckingham, Bradford. Phoenix, History
of a Southwestern Metropolis. (Tucson:
University of Arizona Press, 1989).
“Mayor Gordon, Vice Mayor Seibert and Phoenix
Officials Host Dedication for WWI Vintage
Aircraft at Phoenix Sky Harbor Airport.” Press
Release, City of Phoenix. November 30, 2007.
“Mural, hall of fame induction imprint WWII
pilot in history.” Arizona Republic. May 31, 2011.
“Navy’s Fighting Two Added to Greatness at
Manila.” Life Magazine, November 1944.
“The Law Class of 1949.” Arizona
Attorney. February 2010.
Tillman, Barrett. Hellcat Aces of World War
2. (London: Osprey Publishing, 1996).
Trujillo, Margaret Lopez. Phone Interview
by author, October 15, 2011.
Van Haren, Daniel. Interview by author,
September 18, 2011. Dewey, Arizona.
Van Haren-Yates Family Histories. Compiled
by Susan Van Haren. Unpublished document
in the Van Haren family collection.
Villareal, Rudolph. Arizona’s Hispanic Flyboys,
1941-1945. (New York: Writers Club Press, 2002).
Wilmott, H.P., Charles Messenger, and
Robin Overy. World War II. (New York:
Doeling Kindersley Ltd., 2004).
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