REPORT – 2009
ARIZONA TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH CENTER
Arizona Department of Transportation
From: Project SPR 576 –
US-93 Bighorn Sheep Study: Distribution and
Trans-Highway Movements of Desert Bighorn
Sheep in Northwestern Arizona
About the Arizona Transportation Research Center
The Arizona Transportation Research Center (ATRC) directs the
Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) research program.
ATRC MISSION — To pursue and share knowledge in transportation.
ATRC VISION — ATRC sets the national standard of excellence for
transportation research, product evaluation, and
The research program encompasses seven research emphasis
• Intelligent Transportation Systems
• Materials & Construction
• Planning & Administration
• Traffic & Safety
The research program also includes the ADOT Product Resource
Investment Deployment and Evaluation (PRIDE) program. The
review and acceptance of new products for possible use by ADOT is
coordinated through the PRIDE program. The approved products list
(APL) is also maintained under the PRIDE program.
ATRC houses and operates the ADOT Library. The library is
maintained by a full-time librarian. The ATRC Library is open to
ADOT employees, transportation faculty in Arizona universities, and
Arizona local and county transportation staff.
The library catalog is available on the Internet. The library collection
currently counts over 30,000 entries, including over 60 journal and
SPR-535 (2) Evaluation of the Integration of a Commercial Vehicle Information System
Network (CVISN) at the Nogales Port of Entry. Published in 2008.
In 1995, the U.S. Congress directed the Federal Highway Administration to describe
how and when it would design, deploy, and maintain a commercial vehicle information
system network (CVISN). The CVISN conceptualization focused on inspections and
safety ratings, out-of-service orders and registration denials, objectives and constraints,
and data collection and use.
The three CVISN operation capabilities are safety information exchange, credentials
administration, and electronic screening. A Level 1 implementation results in basic
operation functionality in these three functional areas. A Level 2 implementation results
in advanced operation functionality in these three areas. Using data collected by
commercial vehicle inspection officers in Arizona, this study evaluated the integration of
CVISN at the Nogales port of entry and identified opportunities for improving operation
effectiveness in the future.
The study analyzed commercial vehicle entries and clearance rates from 2005 to 2007
with CVISN. The results indicate that the cost efficiencies of the port’s inspection booths
could potentially be improved by roughly 30 percent.
The Arizona CVISN implementation includes port of entry “super booths” that are
equipped with all of the requisite communication capabilities to interact with the
designated intelligent transportation system (ITS) networks. Safety information is
exchanged through creating and querying of inspection data. Credentials such as
vehicle registrations and fuel tax reports are administered electronically. Vehicles are
electronically screened to identify the carrier, the vehicle, and the driver and to
determine if a physical inspection is necessary.
Recent developments in a proposed “Phase 3” project
have indicated that plans for redevelopment of the
Nogales port of entry facility are almost complete with
an estimated 42-month construction time frame. Within
that time frame, a proposed pilot study would be
conducted on the effectiveness of transponder/reader
performance and technology and inspection process
issue resolution. ¤¤
SPR-402: Evaluation of Moisture Sensitivity Properties of ADOT Mixtures on US 93.
Published in 2005.
This University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) report documents the performance of three
asphaltic concrete sections in an effort to assess moisture sensitivity design
requirements. The three evaluated sections included: a Superpave-designed section
with 1-inch nominal maximum aggregate size, a Superpave-designed section with 3/4-
inch nominal maximum aggregate size, and an ADOT Marshall-designed section with
3/4-inch nominal maximum aggregate size. The two Superpave sections did not include
an anti-stripping additive based on the results of the Superpave specified moisture
sensitivity test (AASHTO T-283). The ADOT section included 2% portland cement
based on the results of the ADOT immersion compression test. This research project
evaluated the moisture sensitivity of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures used on all
three sections using the AASHTO T-283 procedure and the ADOT immersion
compression test procedure (ARIZ 802). Laboratory mixtures and field cores were
tested by the modified AASHTO T-283 method using both the freeze-thaw and no
freeze-thaw conditioning measures.
The Superpave field sections demonstrated both adhesive and cohesive moisture
damage, resulting in premature fatigue cracking. The ADOT field section, with portland
cement added to reduce moisture sensitivity, performed well. All sections were
constructed using the same aggregate and asphalt cement source.
This research has demonstrated that the results of AASHTO T-283, which indicated that
anti-strip additives were not required, are not necessarily correct. As a result of this
research, ADOT Standard Specification Section 417, which applies to all non-rubberized,
dense-graded Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) mixtures, has
been modified. Test method AASHTO T-283 for moisture sensitivity has been eliminated
and replaced with immersion compression (ARIZ 802). Interstate 10 from Quartzsite to
Dome Rock is one of many highways constructed with the revised gyratory design using
immersion compression to evaluate moisture sensitivity. ¤¤
SPR-402-2: Development of Performance-Related Specifications for Asphalt
Pavements in the State of Arizona. Published in 2008.
This Arizona State University study was commissioned to determine what additional
asphalt properties could be used to predict pavement performance. Characteristics
such as the asphalt cement binder properties, subgrade soil properties, aggregate base
properties, mixture properties (stiffness, thermal fracture, deformation, fatigue
performance, strain), environmental conditions, and traffic loading were determined for
typical materials and roadways.
As a result of this research, ADOT has an extensive material property database for use
in pavement design. Since then the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide
(M-E PDG) has been made available for adoption. This new database will enable
ADOT to calibrate this new M-E PDG to local conditions, enabling far greater accuracy
in predicting pavement performance and resulting in more economical pavement
designs. Calibration of the M-E PDG is being conducted as a part of project SPR-606.
SPR-524: Development of Mix Design Procedures for Gap Graded Asphalt Rubber
Asphaltic Concrete (ARAC). Published in 2008.
The objective of this project was to formally document the mix design procedure used by
the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) for asphalt rubber asphaltic concrete
(ARAC) mixtures. Prior to this project, ADOT performed all the designs for these
mixtures in-house and had no formal documentation of the procedure. The procedure
documented as part of this project is now included in the ADOT Materials Testing
Manual as ARIZ 832.
During the same period that this project was being conducted, ADOT was also revising
its specifications to include a section for end-product ARAC mixtures. This new
specification (along with a reference to ARIZ 832) was ultimately adopted as ADOT
Standard Specification Section 415. Section 415 includes the requirement that mix
designs be performed by the contractor rather than ADOT. End-product specifications
have historically produced superior paving projects and are standard for the industry
SPR-576: US 93 Bighorn Sheep Study: Distribution and Trans-Highway Movements of
Desert Bighorn Sheep in Northwestern Arizona. Published in 2007.
(This summary was first published in the 2007 Implementation Report. An update is
provided here in view of recent implementation developments).
Backed by funding from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and ADOT, the
Arizona Game and Fish Department monitored desert bighorn sheep via satellite
telemetry, ground observations, and track beds between 2004 and 2006, primarily to
determine distribution and movements relative to mileposts (MP) 3 to 17 of U.S.
Highway 93 in the Black Mountains of northwestern Arizona. Bighorns concentrated
trans-highway movements in the area of proposed highway realignments between MP 3
and MP 17 at five continuous, linear, elevated ridgelines. Of those five, 82 percent of
highway crossings between MP 3 and MP 17 occurred near ridgelines at MP 3.3, 5.1,
and 12.2. The research team concluded that highway crossing structures at these
locations would promote highway permeability at a level ensuring genetic heterogeneity
and vigor of the resident desert bighorn sheep population.
It was determined that roadway expansion would potentially be a barrier to the
bighorn, disrupting migration patterns and affecting herd sustainability. The
innovative solution? Build three wildlife overpasses — the first in the lower 48 states —
at MP 3.3, 5.1, and 12.2. Design of the
overpasses has been completed and
construction is in the initial stages.
ADOT approved a new research project
for fiscal year 2009 titled “Evaluation of
Measures to Promote Desert Bighorn
Sheep Highway Permeability: US
Highway 93”. This new effort will
continue a thorough collection and
analysis of data before and during
overpass construction, and potentially (if
subsequently funded) after the
construction is completed.
The figure shows what an overpass at MP 12.2 might look like upon completion.
Fiscal Year 2008 Completed Research Projects
ID # Title
SPR-402 Development of Performance-Related Specifications for
SPR-473 Arizona Intelligent Vehicle Systems Evaluation Owen
SPR-524 Development of Mix Design Proceedures and End
Product Specifications for Gap-Graded
Asphalt-Rubber Asphalt Concrete
SPR-534 Digital Signature Feasibility Study Semmens
SPR-540 Evaluation of Measures to Minimize Wildlife Vehicle
Collisions and Maintain Wildlife Permeability Across
SPR-544 What Is the Best Mix of Service Delivery Strategies that Can
Be Employed to Reduce Customer Time in Motor Vehicle
Division Field Offices?
SPR-574 Use of NDT Equipment for Construction Quality Control of
Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements
SPR-591 High Crash Risk Unsignalized Intersections Harris
SPR-592 Building Tribal Traffic Safety Capacity Harris
SPR-593 Development and Implementation of a Regional Safety
SPR-597 Highway Safety Incentive Report Harris
SPR-598 Should State DOTs Prefer Bicycle Lanes or Wide Curb
SPR-608 Development of Rational Pay Factors Based on Concrete
Compressive Strength Data
SPR-609 Driver Education for Safety in Adverse Driving Conditions Semmens
SPR-610 Implementing a Statewide Rideshare and Vanpool Program
SPR-612 Evaluate Effectiveness of Cattle Guards and Fencing Harris
SPR-614 Origins and Destinations Study of Older Persons Semmens
SPR-615 ITS Concepts for Rural Corridor Operations Owen
SPR-629 Analysis of Capacity and Operations after Retrofit
Improvements of Happy Valley and I-17 Roundabout
SPR-635 Improved Efficiency Through Driving Simulator Training Owen
SPR-637 Cost/Benefit Analysis of Electronic License Plates Semmens
SPR-639 Effectiveness of Various Pre-Emergent Herbicides Semmens
Fiscal Year 2009 Completed Research Projects
ID # Title
SPR-396-1 LTPP and Other Test Section Management and Evaluation:
SPR-535-2 Evaluation of the Integration of CVISN at the Nogales Port
SPR-571 Comparative Cost of Risk Study Semmens
SPR-575 Concrete Aggregate Durability Study Dimitroplos
SPR-584 Survey of Traffic Noise Reduction Products, Materials, and
SPR-588 A Study of the Effectiveness of Bighorn Underpasses on
State Route 68
SPR-590 Development of a Rational Methodology to Assess
Performance-Related Pay Factors for Asphalt
SPR-601 Cost Evaluation of Cross-Border Truck Emissions
Testing Using Heavy Duty Remote Sensing
SPR-636 “Heat Island” Effects on Pavement Dimitroplos
SPR-670 Restraint Use (Seat Belt and Child Passenger Seats) Survey Harris
ATRC CONTACT INFORMATION
ATRC STAFF PHONE NUMBERS E-MAIL ADDRESSES
Anne Ellis, Ph.D. (602) 712-6910 firstname.lastname@example.org
Research Project Managers
Christ Dimitroplos, PE (602) 712-7850 email@example.com
Estomih (Tom) Kombe, Ph.D., PE (602) 712-3135 firstname.lastname@example.org
Dianne Kresich (602) 712-3134 email@example.com
Jason Harris, MBA, PE, PMP (602) 712-6927 firstname.lastname@example.org
Steve Rost, Ph.D. (602) 712-6348 email@example.com
Dale Steele (602) 712-3138 firstname.lastname@example.org
Technical & Administrative Support
Evelyn Howell – Technical Editor (602) 712-6346 email@example.com
Anthony Kerin – PRIDE Program (602) 712-6430 firstname.lastname@example.org
FAX (602) 712-3400
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