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U.S. Census in Arizona - Federal Materials
In 1790, the first census of population in the United States was taken after George Washington was elected to the presidency. The first nine United States censuses were managed by the U.S. Marshals. By 1880, Congress created a census office within the United States Department of the Interior, but the staff had to be recruited every ten years for each new census, which prevented stability and continuity. In 1902, a permanent census office was created, which was later transferred to the United States Department of Commerce in 1913. Today, the United States Census Bureau is based in Maryland and has regional offices located throughout the country.
Since 1790, the population census data has been used to determine the number of congressional representatives for each state and to align congressional district boundaries. Following the first census of population, the United States government expanded census activities over the years to gather statistics about other topics, including agriculture, housing, economy, and manufactures. The primary purpose of the censuses is to gather statistical information, which is critical for market analysis, distributing government funding, planning services and facilities, and studying environmental impact.
In Arizona, the U.S. Marshals performed the first census of population in 1864, after Arizona became a United States territory. Arizona achieved statehood in 1912, and was included in the census of population as a state for the first time in 1920. This federal collection of materials includes census reports about Arizona’s population, housing, agriculture, manufactures, and economy. The collection provides a wealth of statistics about Arizona’s past and present, which are useful for comparative study.
Federal publications are printed by the authority of Congress or by executive or judicial agencies at taxpayer expense and are distributed to federal agencies, their clientele and to depository libraries which serve the public. The State of Arizona Research Library is the Regional Federal Depository Library for Arizona.
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1920 Census of Population. Volume 3: Composition and Characteristics of of the Population by States, Arizona
1935 Census of Agriculture. Reports for States with Statistics for Counties and a Summary for the United States, Arizona
1974 Census of Agriculture. Volume 1: Geographic Area Series. Part 3: Arizona, State and County Data
1978 Census of Agriculture. Volume 1: Geographic Area Series. Part 3: Arizona, State and County Data
1982 Census of Agriculture. Volume 1: Geographic Area Series. Part 3: Arizona, State and County Data
1987 Census of Agriculture. Volume 1: Geographic Area Series. Part 3: Arizona, State and County Data